Smoking is in general associated with a greater loss of the alveolar bone, at younger ages, manifested through more frequent vertical defects and a greater loss in the aproximal areas. There does not seems to be differences between different types of nicotine administration, the severity of the periodontal disease being generally correlated to the number of cigarettes, if there is also a genetic predisposition which allows the smoking to accentuate the evolution of the disease. The mechanisms of smoking in the pathology of the
periodontal disease relies on the unbalance of cytokines IL- 4, IL-8, TGF-β, the alteration of oxido-reduction in the favor of anaerobe bacteria, the modification of neutrophils chemotactism, a reduced potential of resolution of the inflammation through prolonged vasoconstriction, the selection of a pathogenic flora which may persist even after the conservatory therapy.
- PERIODONTAL DISEASE