Risk factors involved in the development of enamel defects

Authors: Roxana Enache, A. Maxim, Marinela Pasareanu


The defects of enamel development represent disfunctions involving colour modifications. Extension of the formative period of the dental organ, occurring over long time intervals, creates the conditions for various etiological factors to interfere, such as: hereditary, congenital, acquired factors, which also explains the extreme variety of the clinical forms, known as having a severe psychological and functional impact upon the patient. The aim of the study was to correlate the prevalence of enamel defect development with the sex and age of the childern under investigation, as well as with a series of potential risk factors described in the literature of the field, such as: birth, weight at birth, diet between 0-4 and 4-12 months of life, socio-economic factors. The study was performed on a number of 1,042 childern (516 boys and 526 girls) with ages between 3 and 9 years, coming from a rural and an urban zone of the Suceava county, the DDI index being used for data systematization. Questionnaires to be filled in and invitations asking for patient consent were sent to the parents of these children. The data obtained were processed by the EPIINFO medical statistical programs – version 6.0. Confidence intervals at a 95% significance threshold were applied for data processing, while the differences were analyzed by the χ2 test. Generally, the adopted significance threshold was the classical one – of 0.5 or lower. The results obtained showed no statistically significant differences in the distribution of the enamel defects according to sex and/or age, however, the usage of the logistic pattern of regression led to statistically significant differences as to the enamel defects distribution versus low weight at birth and socio-economical status. A complete clinical and paraclinical evaluation of the enamel defects and of the potential risk factors involved is required for establishing a correct clinical and therapeutical prognosis, and for subsequent preventive and interceptive measures.

  • DDE index
  • enamel defects
  • temporary dentition