One of the most common chronic respiratory diseases, incapacitating the development and quality of life of patients and directly correlated with oro-dental cavity is represented by asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the airways, in which mast cells, eosinophils and T lymphocytes play an important role. A better understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of asthma became possible by accepting that the existence of chronic inflammation, with its variations, is reflected in the clinical condition of the patient, with implications on the dental status.
Scope of the study: Determination of the prevalence and severity of oro-dental pathology in patients with chronic respiratory diseases, namely of individualized regimens, according to associated comorbidities that would contribute to improving the quality of life.
Materials and method: A study was conducted on a group of 167 patients hospitalized in Vth Internal Medicine and Geriatrics – Gerontology Clinic, CF Hospital of Iasi, along one year (2011-2012) and also on 53 patients consulted in a dental ambulatory unit.
Results and discussion: The investigations conducted in the Vth Medical and Geriatrics – Gerontology Clinic, respectively in the Ambulatory of University Dental Polyclinic, showed an increased prevalence of gingivitis, chronic marginal superficial periodontitis, coated tongue, possibly caused by insufficient ventilation in the nose and mouth breathing predominance. Angular cheilitis and stomatitis have been also had in view, as diseases of the oral cavity, in patients with asthma and chronically obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Such cases were more frequent in male than in female patients, a possible explanation being the higher prevalence of smoking and increased exposure to professional allergens for males, as well as a higher incidence of viral and / or bacterial superinfections.
Conclusions: Over 41.1% of the patients with chronic respiratory diseases and COPD AB present angular cheilitis (11.6% cases), stomatitis (22.3% cases) and candidosis (11.2% cases). In the experimental group, the level of oral hygiene is more satisfactory in women than in men, the same ratio being registered for smoker and nonsmoker patients.
Also, caries occur more frequently in men than in women, the causes being, once again, health education, oral hygiene status and smoking.