Authors: Mihai Liviu CIOFU, Daniela ŞULEA, Alexandra CRĂCANA, Otilia BOIŞTEANU, Alexandra BURLUI


The mechanisms of diplopia occurrence involve the impairment of factors related to optical anatomy, neurological pathways, muscle contraction and position and volume of the orbital content. Although ophthalmologists encounter double vision most often in their practice, this sign is at the crossroad with other medical specialties, such as neurology, maxillofacial surgery and ENT. The purpose of the present review is to systematize the existing information and to enhance the understanding of diplopia-related facts, from the perspective of maxillofacial surgery. Aspects related to clinical examination and imaging are discussed together with an overview of the main causes of diplopia in the context of head and neck disorders. Key factors that should alert the surgeon as to the possible presence of severe conditions, or for emergency surgery, are underlined.

  • diplopia
  • exophthalmos
  • orbit
  • tumour.