Authors: Kushal ZINZUVADIA, Heidar ZOHREHEI, Kasra DABESHLIM, Eleni KANASI, Simran GROVER, Judith A. JONES


Aim. This systematic review examines the association between salivary biomarkers and periodontal disease. Materials and methods. An advanced search used PubMed as a MeSH database with two key words (salivary biomarkers and periodontal disease), yielding 764 studies. Exclusion criteria included non-English articles, studies on children or animals, and limited/irrelevant studies, reducing the results to 73 studies, which were reviewed and assessed for quality using the NOS scale. Results and discussion. The review of the studies assessing the most commonly-identified salivary biomarkers revealed the following aspects, in order of the identification rate: 1) Interleukin 1-beta (IL1-β) (16 studies): 13 of 16 documented elevated periodontitis; 2) Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8): 10 of 13 reported elevation associated with periodontitis; 3) Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α): 6 of 10 associated the biomarker with higher periodontitis rates, 3 – no elevation, and 2 – biomarker at lower rates; 4) Interleukin-6 (IL-6): 6 of 10 studies showed biomarker elevation with periodontitis, 3 – no elevation, 1 – lower levels; 5) 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG): all 6 studies recorded higher biomarker levels with periodontitis; 6) Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH): 3 of 6 studies revealed elevated biomarker levels, and 3 – lower levels; 7) Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST): 4 studies of 5 reported elevated levels of biomarker, 1 showed depressed levels; 8) C-Terminal Telopeptide Type I Collagen (ICTP): 1 study of 5 indicated significantly higher biomarker levels. A quality assessment on all studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Conclusions. Biomarkers associated with periodontitis included: IL1 -β, MMP-8, TNF α, IL-6, 8-OHdG, LDH, AST and ICTP, warranting higher subject-numbers and methodologicallystandardized research.

  • salivary biomarkers