Tooth movement by orthodontic force application includes remodeling changes in dental tissues, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and gingiva. Orthodontic forces generates compression and tension regions in the periodontal ligament. Orthodontic tooth movement
depends on the physical characteristics of the applied force and subsequent biological response of the alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. These force-induced strains
alter periodontal ligament’s vascularity and blood flow, resulting in local synthesis and release of various keymolecules, such as neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, colony-stimulating factors. These molecules can evoke many cellular responses by various cell types in and around the teeth, providing a favorable microenvironment for tissue deposition or resorption. Current literature provides vast data on extensive cellular activities in the mechanically stressed periodontal ligament and surrounding bone involving osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, in response to the orthodontic force. Therefore, focus of this review is on the thorough analysis of the cellular mechanisms involved in causing orthodontic tooth movement.
- bone remodeling
- cellular biology
- orthodontic tooth movement