Authors: Hamad A. ALSAWIDAN, Ahmed TAWFIG, Mohammed ALASQAH, Khalid GUFRAN


Introduction. The present research was intended to evaluate the frequency of altered passive eruption (APE) among Saudi population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to determine the possible factors and variables related to APE. Materials and methods. The study population included 102 patients, subjected to clinical examinations. The required clinical parameters were recorded in a designed data collection sheet using the UNC-15 probe. Periodontal conditions, as well as probing pocket depth (PPD) were measured on three different facial sites per tooth. The probe transparency (TRAN) method was used to determine the gingival phenotype. The width-to-length ratio of a clinical crown was evaluated by measuring the clinical crown length and width of an individual tooth, Canine to Canine, all measures being taken with a digital calliper. These measurements were compared to an ideal (0.66-0.80) mm width-to-length ratio, to give the percentage for altered passive eruption per tooth type.  Results and discussion. In this study, APE prevalence was 23%, with the percentage of females exposed to APE more than of males. The occurrence of APE was 24.5% in thick gingival tissue type and 21% in thin gingival tissue type. The average PPD has a significant positive difference in APE. Tooth type central incisor (CI) is more probable to exhibit a passive eruption, compared to canine. Positive correlation between PPD and W/L ratio (r=0.324, p0.001), PPD and APE (r=0.314, p-0.001), gender and W/L ratio (r=0.206, p-0.038) were observed, but no correlation on gender and tissue type.  Conclusions. APE is a common condition among the Saudi population, one of four patients being diagnosed with APE. The percentage of females with APE is higher than of males. A basic acquaintance of dental and soft tissue contacts must also be taken into consideration while diagnosing and treating APE.

  • altered passive eruption (APE)
  • central incisors (CI)
  • gingival thickness (GT)
  • lateral incisors (LI)
  • probing pocket depth (PPD)