Introduction. According to the World Health Organization, osteoporosis ranks fourth among other diseases common on Earth, second only to diseases of the cardiovascular system, oncology, and endocrine diseases. Osteoporosis occurs as a result of a slow and imperceptible loss of calcium, with a decrease in the volume and strength of bones. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to clarifying the relationship between metabolic bone tissue diseases and changes in the bone tissue of the jaws. It would seem that the systemic processes taking place in the body cannot help but affect the state of the tissues of the maxillofacial system. However, the relationship between osteoporosis and the condition of the oral cavity remains a controversial issue. Osteoporosis was initially considered a risk factor for rejection of dental implants, but experimental and clinical studies indicate that implantation can be successful in osteoporosis, although the mechanisms of osseointegration in this disease are still not fully understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in the morphological structure of the bone tissue of animals with modelled osteoporosis after dental implantation. Materials and methods. The experimental part of the study was performed on 63 Chinchilla rabbits. Experimental osteoporosis was modelled by carrying out ovariectomy in females and orchiectomy in males, under thiopental anesthesia. After surgery, the animals of the experimental group were divided into 4 subgroups: subgroup A – 15 females with experimentally confirmed osteoporosis after ovariectomy, which did not receive corrective therapy; subgroup B – 15 males with experimental osteoporosis after orchiectomy which did not receive corrective therapy; subgroup A(I) – 16 females with experimental osteoporosis after ovariectomy which received corrective therapy; subgroup B(I) – 17 males with experimental osteoporosis after ovariectomy which received corrective therapy. Two months after ovariectomy and orchiectomy, the animals of the experimental group were given implants under thiopental anesthesia. The morphological section of the work included macroscopic and histological studies on the area bone tissue of the lower jaw, where implants were integrated. Viewing and photographing of preparations were carried out on a microscope of the “Leika DMLS” system at various magnifications.Results and dicussion. In subgroups A and B, in which simulated osteoporosis was not treated, the bone tissue was rarefied not only in the area of contact with the implant, but also in the entire bone. At the same time, removal of the implant from the bone before the production of histological preparations, was always accompanied by destruction of the newly formed loose bone tissue, which in turn did not allow a detailed analysis of the regenerated bone around the implant in these subgroups of animals. In the subgroups of animals A (I) and B (I), which received the treatment scheme developed by us, in order to suppress the phenomena of osteoporosis, after 6 months of observation, the structure and density of the definitive bone was completely normalized, the regenerate being represented by coarse-fiber bone tissue well connected to both bone and implant.Conclusions. The results of histological studies established that the processes of osseointegration of dental implants in different subgroups of experimental animals differed from one to other: in animals of the control group, a connective tissue model of the peri-implant zone is formed sooner than in the subgroups with simulated osteoporosis.
- bone tissue
- dental implantation