Authors: Abdulaziz Abdulrahman AL EID


Introduction: With the increasing demand for aesthetic treatments, tooth bleaching is becoming a common procedure in dentistry. Contemporary bleaching agents are typically composed of either hydrogen peroxide (HP) or carbamide peroxide (CP). Tooth colour can be influenced by various factors, like intrinsic stains, extrinsic stains or systemic causes. Tooth bleaching treatment options include whitening toothpastes, professional cleaning by scaling and polishing to remove stain and tartar, internal bleaching of non-vital teeth, external bleaching of vital teeth, microabrasion of enamel with abrasives and acid, placement of crowns and veneers. Aim: To analyze the literature on bleaching and to provide a broad overview of the bleaching techniques, of their efficacy and adverse effects on soft and hard tissues, as well as of its effects on biological structures, and to provide literature review. Materials and methods: An online literature analysis was done using PubMed and Google Scholar for studies reporting bleaching techniques in dentistry until 1st July 2021, using relevant keywords like tooth-whitening, tooth bleaching, hydrogen peroxide, etc. Over 190 articles were initially reviewed, based on their applicability to the present topic and then studied in detail. Results and discussion: In vitro and in vivo studies, comparing various bleaching techniques, have demonstrated the efficacy of vital and non-vital tooth bleaching. Bleaching treatments are affected by several factors, including the actual causes of tooth discoloration. Also, patient compliance, sincerity and dedication in following the treatment plan plays a huge role in the success.  Conclusions: This review article will help clinicians elevate their knowledge about various bleaching options available, its processing and understanding of the effects of bleaching on teeth, to reduce the risks for patients.

  • home-bleaching
  • hydrogen peroxide
  • tooth bleaching
  • tooth whitening
  • vital bleaching